Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Systemic Typology: Enneagram is Copying Freud?


In my 2 previous article, Enneagram, What Really is it and Summary Key Points of the Fate Reengineering Program, I proposed the possible source of enneagram is from Freud's Theories.

My hypothesis is that Ichazo was fitting Freud's Ideas onto the Enneagram Symbol of Gurdjieff in the 60's. There can be no evidence as Ichazo had not disclosed how exactly he invented the Enneagram. It is just a hypothesis. My hypothesis is based on the following 4 observations:

1. Freudism was still the most popular school of psychology in the 1960's.

2. Ichazo named his invention as the Enneagon of Ego Fixation. Both the terms Ego and Fixation are very popular terms of Freudism.

3. There are many correlation between Enneagram and Freudism, for example, the 9 types was very similar to the 6 types of Psychosexual Development Fixation and the symptoms of the Unhealthy Id, Ego and Superego. Similar concepts of Repression, Acting Out, Defensive Mechanisms, Sublimation (results of Inetgration), Death Instincts (the compulsion to repeat unpleasurable experiences) can also be found in Enneagram.

4. The core concept of Ichazo's Ennegarm, the Essence resembles very much Freud's Theory on the Unconscious. According to Ichazo, the loss of awareness of the Holy Idea beccomes a person's Ego Fixation. We repress unpleasant memories into the Subconscious and we gradually moving away from the awareness. This fixed how we think and act.

I am not saying that Ichazo stole anything from Freud. Might be he was having similar understanding as of Freud. The key purpose of my hypothesis is to make clear that the original Enneagram (or Enneagon) is something related to psychology than to mysticism.

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Personal Development: Summary Key Points of the Fate Reengineering Program


I just completed the Fate Reengineering Program. There were tons of information and they are not easy. So to make those who have attended and those who haven't having a clearer view of the Systemic Personality Typology, I write these key points for you:

1. Personality is a dynamic set of characteristics, which influences people's cognition, motivation and behaviour.

2. Personality is used represent us, but not to disguise our identity.

3. Study of Personality is systemic. All 7 theories of personality psychology are right. Each of which explains part of the whole story.

4. The 4 Elements of Fate Reengineering are the 4 criteria from Maslow: Awareness, Reality Centred, Acceptance and Democratic.

5. Personality is systemic. We are presenting to the world different faces of our personality. They are contextual, not the core.

6. Personality Typology is systemic. Each typology is seeing personality from one perspective.

7. MBTI or the Jungian Personality Types is seeing personality from a perspective of the 8 Mental or Cognitive Functions. 16 types are the result of combination of 2 groups of mental functions, each having 4 variations. (Not the combination of 4 groups of letters E/I, S/N, T/F & J/P)

8. Enneagram is seeing personality from a perspective of Maladpative Behaviour Mechanism.

9. PPACC is seeing personality from a perspective of the combined action of the 5 Ego States.

10. When understanding the MBTI code, the first and last letters are only used to indicate the preference of the 8 mental functions. Never use these 2 letters to understand one's personality and to seek improvement and development. This will be misleading.

11. To improve, utilize your Supporting Function to balance your Leading Function.

12. To develop, explore your Achievement Function.

13. To be adaptive, be flexible on all your 8 Mental Functions.

14. To use DiSC as shortcut, remember it is your DiSC profiles when you are stress-free.

15. For best and lowest energy consumption performance, use your Inborn (or Core) Functions.

16. Use Enneagram as a "Times Table" for Freud's theories. It is not mystic or sacred. (see my another article on: Enneagram, What Really is It?)

17. Enneagram analysis should be Thematic, not Analytic.

18. High, Average, Low Points, Integration and Disintegration is NOT a direction, but a Signal of Development.

19. High, Average, Low Points, Integration and Disintegration are the result of Awareness. They indicate your Degree of Awareness.

20. So, to develop, enhance your Awareness and Understanding of what you are searching for, your compulsory behaviours, and your maladaptive behaviour mechanism.

21. Different Enneagram types are equivalent to the 6 types of Oral, Anal & Phallic Fixation of Freud's Psychosexual Stage Theory (#2: Electra Complex, #4: Oral Aggressive Fixation, #5: Oral Receptive Fixation, #7: Anal Expulsive Fixation, #8: Oedipus Complex, #1: Anal Retentive Fixation), plus the symptoms from Unhealthy Id (#3), Unhealthy Ego (#6) and Unhealthy Superego (#9).

22. We can't accurately identify others' personality type. It is impossible due to there can be hundreds & thousands of variations of Enneagram Types and Contextual Selves (in MBTI). Only the arrogant and ignorant will claim they can do so.

23. Personality Typology is best for Self Development.

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Monday, October 29, 2007

Personal Development: Enneagram, What Really is It?


As I mentioned in the Fate Reenginering Workshop yesterday, from my point of view, enneagram is just a clever fiiting of Freud's theories, plus some ideas from philosophy and metaphysics into the enneagram symbol by its originator, Ichazo in the 1960's. There is nothing sacred in it!

His students and the students of them are continuously adding various kind of stuff into it in the past 30 years. Some are great stuff, some are not.

The enneagram symbol was released to public by Gurdjieff in the 1910's. He had never disclosed the source of this symbol. There is no evidence proving that it was coming from any ancient wisdom. Ichazo borrowed from Gurdjieff the symbol and created his Enneagon of Ego Fixation.

Enneagram is quite accurate. It can be simply because of the reliability of Freud's Theories. You can find the Freud's ideas of Fixation, Repression, Defense Mechanism, etc hidden in the Enneagram of Personality.

I always see enneagram as a useful tool for remembering and applying some of Freud's theories in daily life. Its usefulness is just like the "Times Table" (乘數表) in mathematics.

Take for an example, the Direction of Disintegration in enneagram is 1-4-2-8-5-7-1 and 9-6-3-9. There might be some mystic rationale behind Gurdjieff's original enneagram. But this was just a fitting of Freud's idea of Repression and Acting Out into the symbol. There is nothing mystic. Each type of "personality" is repressing some emotions. When under stress, each releases the repressed emotion in a different way as a Protective Mechanism.

2 releases the repressed emotion of Anger (towards those who did not responded to 2's help and kindness) by attacking, like an unhealthy 8.

3 releases the repressed emotion of Shame (due to 3's failures to achieve) by dissociating from their feelings and turn themselves off, like an unhealthy 9.

4 releases the repressed emotion of Hatred (I am not as good as others) by coercing others to take care of them like an unhealthy 2.

5 releases the repressed emotion of Loneliness and Anxiety (due to 5's isolation and frustration in searching for answers) by acting impulsively and hysterically, like an unhealthy 7.

6 releases the repressed emotion of Fear and Anger (of abandonment and inadequacy) by acting violently towards others, like an unhealthy 3.

7 releases the repressed emotion of Worry and Anxiety (due to losing self-control) by imposing strict rules on themselves and others. 7 might become very critical like an unhealthy 1.

8 releases the repressed emotion of Fear (due to the real and imagined threats from others) by retreating into isolation, like an unhealthy 5.

9 releases the repressed emotion of Helplessness and Anxiety (due to the accumulating effects of previously neglected problems) by depending on others or even becoming self-destructive, like an unhealthy 6.

1 releases the repressed emotion of Shame, Guilt & Self-Hatred (they cannot keep their own rules) and Hatred towards others (others violated their rules or others do not care about their ideals) by becoming self-destructive, addiction or depression, like an unhealthy 4.

You can find many other similar co-relationships of Freud's theories and the Enneagram of Personality. I really like the Enneagram as a Times Table for Freudism.

Forget about the sacredness and mysticism. Use it as a Times Table.

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Friday, October 19, 2007

Concepts 101 Part 9: Discovery & Influence


Nearly all my teachings about NLP, Hypnosis, Coaching and Facilitation are revolving around a major concept of mine, Discovery & Influence.

They are the 2 far ends of the spectrum of communication. You cannot discover and influence at the same time as they are at the 2 extremes.

Coaching is at the far end of Discovery. We help others to discover without giving any directions and advice. It is a form of pure discovery. It is easy for the coach, but harder for the coachee.

Persuasion is on the other hand, at the far end of Influence. It is hard for the persuaders while easy for the one being persuaded.

From the NLP point of view, Discovery is helping people to recover the Deletions, Distortions and Generalizations in their thinking. Influence is purposefully deleting, distorting and generalizing the thinking of people so as they will agree with you.

Suggestions-based Hypnosis is a kind of Persuasion. We delete, distort and/or generalize clients' thinking. Facilitation is in between Discovery and Influence. We lead our clients to think using suitable structures so as to gain results faster and easier. Transformation Hypnotherapy (SOBER Therapy) is Facilitation, which is done under trance with the unconscious thinking.

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NLP: Some Key Ideas on Advanced Language Patterns


I just finished this year's Advanced Language Patterns (ALP) Module of the NLP Practitioner Training last week. I like to share some of my ideas about ALP.

1. ALP are the most important models of NLP. NLP is the study of the interaction between thinking (Neuro) and Use of Language (Linguistics). We never know what others or even what we think. Thinking is inside our mind. They are the Implicit Part of NLP. The Explicit Part is the Language we use. So Language becomes the "Monitor" of our "Human CPU" (our thinking)!

2. The Content of our language reflects the Content of our thinking. They are very important but they are also too complicated to be understood by normal persons, like you and me. The Patterns of our language reflects the Patterns of our thinking. They are also complicated but much simpler than the content. NLP is the study of the Patterns (context) of our thinking through the Patterns of our Language!

3. Apart from the many other language patterns taught in the module, Meta Model, Milton Model, Presuppositions, and Sleight of Mouth (Reframing using language) are the most important four.

4. Meta Model helps to get more detail information (deep structure) of people's thinking. This eliminates misunderstandings of our perceptions of the environment and behaviors due to our filters of Values, Beliefs and Rules (i.e. Distortion, Deletion and Generalization)

5. Milton Model distorts, deletes and generalizes our thinking so that we change our behaviors without much efforts (i.e. capabilities). This can be good or bad, depending on the content. But Milton Model reflects how we think.

6. Presuppositions also works on our perceptions of environment and behaviors so that we can change easier without much efforts. NLP is also the study of our internal presuppositions, i.e. Filters. It is the Filters that causes the discrepancies of our internal world (Our Perceptions) and the external world (i.e. Reality). The greater the discrepancies, the less realistic we are and the more problems we face.

7. Reframing is the temporary adoptation of another set of Filters instead of the dorminated set so that we can see something differently (gaining more information through a different perception). This is an external way to affect the internal filters. It is difficult or even impossible to work directly with our filters as they are internal and hard to identify. With a new set of filters, we can see more about our Reality and thus decreasing the discrepancies.

8. Meta Model is the easiest of all as it is quite mechanical. You observe the Meta Model Violations and then apply the respective Meta Model to make others or yourself to go meta to see more.

9. Milton Model is also easy. It is just filling in the blank and apply. The only difficult part is deciding what to fill in. The secret is "Pacing & Leading". There are always at least 2 parts of a Milton Model. The first part is Pacing and the second part is Leading. Only the stupid or someone who doesn't really understand NLP will tell you to just fill in anything and you can then persuade others.

10. Presuppositions is again easy. It is also filling in the blank and apply. The secret is there must be lots of "Truth" and a bit of "Falseness". If the "Fasleness" is too false, make it less false before filling in.

11. People find the above 3 difficult because they are unable to see the Meta Model Violations or what to be filling in for the Milton Model or the Presuppositions. Why? Because they are at the same level of the speaker! You must go meta first before you can see them! Einstein once said that we can't solve the problems at the same level of the source of the problems. He is very right.

12. Reframing is the hardest of the fours because Reframing is working on the Filters (Beliefs, Values, Rules), which are already in the upper level which governs people's lower level of capabilities, behaviours and environment. If we need to go meta to see our lower level, we need to go meta-meta to see our upper levels. I had talked about Meta-Meta in Master NLP Practitioner Program. It is difficult to grasp. I will talk about it in greater details in my later messages.

Here is an easier way to understand. If you want to refarme others, you must see the other frame(s) first before you can lead someone to see through that new frame(s). It is NOT a simple filling in the blank. You see something before you can tell someone how to see it! If you are stuck or not being flexible, you can never see the possibilities of any new frame.

13. The best way to judge someone's understanding of NLP is to ask him/her to demonstrate the ALP. One can memorize all the patterns, but using them is another story!

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Thursday, October 18, 2007

Personal Development: NLP, Hypnosis, Coaching, Facilitation, Systemic Thinking and Influencing


I teach quite a lot of stuff, mainly including NLP, Hypnosis, Coaching, Facilitation, Systemic Thinking and Influencing. They seem to be quite different but I am teaching the same thing, Self Awareness!

1. NLP is the gaining of awareness through realizing and minimizing the discrepancy of our External World (Reality) and Internal World (Perceptions). This results in a clearer and realistic thinking.

2. Hypnosis is about accumulating awareness by recognizing and re-understanding our beliefs that leaded to our problems. This results in solving of our problems.

3. Coaching is to enhance our awareness by exposing our assumptions and blind spots. This results in development.

4. Facilitation is the gaining of awareness using different frameworks and directions of thinking. This leads to faster and easier results.

5. Systemic Thinking is increasing our awareness through exploring beyond our usual system of thinking and to identify the connections between sub-systems. This results in seeing more, in form of both bigger pictures and details.

6. Influencing is attaining awareness by understanding human patterns of thinking. You can then persuade others according to their thinking patterns.

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Coaching: Some Misunderstandings about Coaching


One of our classmates asked me a question. Someone told her the following about coaching:

1. We must use reflecting (paraphrasing) to build rapport in coaching.
2. We can coach by doing self-Disclosure (sharing your experience).
3. A coach is required to confront with the coachee.

She is confused. My answer is as follow:

One of the most acceptable definition of coaching is: coaching in non-sporting environments focus on non-directive questioning, provocation and helping clients to analyse and solve their own challenges, rather than offering advice or direction. (This definition was given by Timothy Gallwey, the Father and Originator of Coaching)

If this definition is right, then anything that offering direction and advice is NOT coaching. Reflection and self disclosure can be very directive.

Rapport building is very important in any form of helping, not just coaching. We can adopt a more non-directive way to build rapport in coaching, like talking about what the clients want to discuss. (i.e. 今日想同我傾D乜?). Furthermore, if we are doing real coaching, we do not have our own position or standpoint (立場). This is already the best form of rapport building as we will never argue with the coachees.

Confronting with coachee is the easiest way to lose rapport!

In the past years, I respect the above definition so much that I try my best to develop ways and models to coach without giving advices and directions. They will never be as efficient as directly giving advices or indirectly leading the coachees. However, people wants quick results and starts to do all sorts of things to "speed up" the result of coaching. The outcome is many so-called coaches practicing psychotherapy, counselling, and consulting without proper qualification, but using the name of coaching. I predicted this 6 years ago in 2001 during the 1st class of Registered Corporate Coach Training.

Think of you can have 2 tools to help your people (as a matter of fact, we can have tens of tools to help), they are coaching and advising. But if you mix up the two, we then only have one instead of 2.

Coaching is never better than all other forms of helping. But if coaching is a separate form of helping, then it must be different from others. Or it is just something old with a new name-tag.

Years ago, I already decided to take up my mission of promoting the "Pure" form of Coaching. It can be a lonely and difficult path, but I enjoy it so much!

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Wednesday, October 17, 2007

Learning from Life 156 -160


This is another edition of Learning from Life.

156. If you want to change your Future, change it at Now.

157. People doesn't mean "No" when they say "No".

158. But they also do not mean "Yes", when they say "Yes".

159. People will steal from you. The best way to protect your belongings is to ensure that you can earn them back even if you lose them.

160. People wants to be heard.

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Signs are Everywhere: A Great Magazine in China


Recently I went to China for a short break.

I wandered around the street and found a magzaine in a book shop. It was just 6 dollars, but a great magazine. Colour printing, quality paper, clear editing, informative articles with points. It was just 6 dollars!

Quality of magazines and books always reflects the quality of people. People in Mainland China are not only improving their "hardware", but also their "software" now.

They are improving and if we are not, we can't be "special" even we are in a "Special Administration Region"!

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Monday, October 15, 2007

My Affiliation with Organizations


Some graduates of my coaching and hypnotherapy programs emailed me recently, asking about my affiliation with some organizations. They were requested to join some of the organizations in Hong Kong, which state that I am part of them.

There were so many of them asking me the same question, so I like to clarify here. I am not part of any of those organizations. I don't know why I was said to be part of them, but I am not!

There are already too many organizations out there. My only interest is to train, but not organizing whatever. I had created some organizations in the past. They are solely for the convenience of providing training. I will never encourage anyone to join them as I am not sure whether I have any time to organize any activity for them.

So, join those organziations if you like to do so (everyone has free will) but I know nothing about them at all.

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Monday, October 08, 2007

Hypnosis: Positive Messages Process 發現正面訊息過程


協助受者發現正面訊息的過程,是我們的SOBER Hypnotherapy系統的獨特和核心部份,亦是我們的方法與別不同之處;如果您忽略了這個重要過程,您將使您的進行的治療效果遠遠失色,您浪費了您和您的受者的時間和努力。






1. 可執行的 Actionable:否則受者根本不能做任何事情,來改變他的情況;此外,沒有行動,亦因而沒有結果,受者便不能進一步地具體化他們新的信念。(記得我們什麼時候使用『即係?』這條問題?)

2. 安全的 Safe:對客戶和其他人,這些新的信念沒有任何潛在危險。(記得我們什麼時候使用『因為?』這條問題?)

3. 沒有局限的 Without Limitation:發現新的信念的目的,是為了受者開放更多的可能性,減少限制他們,難題是受者給自己在思想和行動的局限。(記得我們什麼時候使用『因為?』這條問題?)


The Process of Positive Messages is very unique and core part of our system of SOBER Hypnotherapy. If you miss this process, you will make your therapy far, far less effective. You waste your and your client's time and effort.

As it is so important, I explained the process in more details in my recent SOBER Therapy Module of the Certified Hypnotherapist Program. Below is a brief summary of what I had explained that day.

It is not someone in the past or something happened in the past directly causes us problem now. It is the beliefs that developed out of that past event that cause us troubles. For example, you was so fear during a singing contest when you were 10. You unconsciously gained a belief of "public presentation is something horrible". So when you are now already 30, you fear much about speaking in front of people.

In our SOBER System, the Positive Messages Process is the consolidation process after you review your past event, relationship and beliefs during hypnosis. You gain new understanding after the review and you make your new understanding concrete through verbalizing them out. These concrete positive messages become your new beliefs. We can't just delete our old beliefs by not believing in something, but we can only replace the old beliefs with new ones. You believe in something else instead!

Positive Messages are not messages that are "positive" in general sense. It does not need to be optimistic, moral, ethical or even be good. It is not our job and we can't judge the content of our clients' new understanding. I am not saying that being optimistic, moral, ethical or good is not important. But we should not push our own judgement towards our clients!

To be positive, a message must meet the following 3 criteria:

1. Actionable. Or the client can't do anything about it to change his/her situation. Furthermore, without actions (thus without results), clients can't further solidify their new beliefs. (Remember our use of 即係?)

2. Safe. There is no potential danger (to the clients and others) in the message. (Remember our use of 因為?)

3. Without Limitation. The new beliefs are opening up possibilities for the clients, not further limiting them. In hypnosis, a problem is a limitation of client's thinking and actions. (Remember our use of 因為?)

When all 3 criteria are met, the new beliefs (and thus the new actions generated) could be more realistic!

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Updated with Chinese Translation: Feb 8 2009

NLP: The Missing Filter


One core part of NLP is the study of Filters in distorting, deleting and generalizing our thinking. The NLP Filters include Value (i.e. what's important?), Belief (i.e. what's real?) and Rule (i.e. what's right?). These filters can make our thinking and thus our behaviours distant from reality!

So, verifying our filters is one of the major purposes of learning NLP. But one even more influential filter is missing, our Emotions.

When we are in a positive emotional state (e.g. happy, excited, love, etc.), we tend to assign positive values to people, things and happenings. We are in a more readily accepting mood, even something we consider not good to us. However, when we are in a negative emotional states (e.g. sad, angry, fear, etc.), we do the opposites.

This is so called the "Self Deception" researched by Prof. Paul Thagard of the University of Waterloo. We unconsciously distort, delete, and/or generalize the reality when under emotions. This is why the State of Knowing Nothing (in New Coded NLP) is so important in gaining maximum insights. When we know nothing, we are in a void emotional state!

This is also the purpose of Emotional Release when we are doing the Transformational Hypnotherapy Skills (i.e IR, IC, etc.). Only after the emotions are released, the effect of emotions on our thinking is reduced so that we can gain positive messages after the process.

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Sunday, October 07, 2007

Facilitation: 13 Things People Need to Know


No matter you are a coach, a facilitator or anyone who want to help yourself or others (person or organization) to improve or develop, there are 13 things need to be known for any progress. One might not need to know them all. The more they be aware of them, the easier and faster their path for development!

1. Strengths. Your marketable core competencies.
2. Limitations. Your lacking of the marketable core competencies.
3. Opportunities. What's outside that can be attracted by your core competencies.
4. Threats. What's outside that can be attracted by the core competencies you are lacking!
5. Values. What are important to you.
6. Guiding Principles. How do you make decisions.
7. Visions. What can be possible in the future.
8. Standards. Your minimum requirements.
9. Landmarks. How do you know you are on the right tracks!
10. Purposes. Overall objectives.
11. Tasks. Something need to be done at certain time.
12. Assumptions. What you think is truth and/or fact!
13. Directions. Which paths to take.

Being a coach/facilitator, it is our job to help our clients to discover the above!

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Wednesday, October 03, 2007

Top 5 Tips: Top 5 Ways to be a Good Coach


Do you want to use coaching to help other improve and grow? If yes, take a look at my top 5 ways to be a good coach.

1. Get Formal Training. Coaching is not a list of questions to ask, or a collection of several skills. It is an art and you need training and practice to make it useful to your clients.

2. Learn from your Clients. See how they think. See how they improve. See what works and what doesn’t!

3. Treat your Clients like Human Beings. They are not subjects or objects. They are people. They have their problems and they can think by themselves. Your job is helping them to think!

4. Accepting the Facts that Clients will Come & Go. You can never keep a client for life. They come and go. Do your best to coach them when they are still with you!

5. Coach with some Frameworks. Coaching is never a guesswork or simply by intuition. Many say so, just because they do not know they are already using some frameworks in their coaching works. Learn and try some coaching models. Use them so that you are not coach randomly. Or this will simply confuse your clients, rather than helping them think with clarity.

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我的觀點極短篇: 最沒用的是有用的


『三十輻共一轂,當其無有,車之用』... 道德經。



在車上我以 ipod 播放音樂,但它與 Hi-Fi 的接線有點問題,它必須正正的放好才有聲音,在 ipod 旁有一堆廢紙,一堆沒用的東西,但多月來還未丟掉,今天下定決心把它們拋棄,開車時才發覺 ipod 沒有聲音了!

最沒用的是有用的,它們把 ipod 頂著固定放好!

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Updated: Dec 18 2015

Top 5 Tips: Top 5 Reasons of Doing or Learning Coaching


I have been teaching coaching for more than 6 years. But why should we coach or learn coaching? Here are my top 5 reasons:

1. Coaching is growing. More people are going into the coaching field and more managers are using coaching to help their staff and their business day after days. If you don't coach or you don't know how to coach, you are lagging behind the whole new world.

2. Both the Coach & the Coachee improve. You can't stop yourself improving when you help others to improve. You can't stop yourself getting your own problems solved when you help others to solve their problems. You can't stop yourself seeing more opportunities when you help others to see their

3. Probably, you improve more than your coachees. Your coachees might present something you've struggled and/or you are struggling yourself. You can see clearly yourself.

4. Coaching is for your career development. You coach your people. When they improve, your team's performance Improves. You can also consider moving into the coaching field as your next step in your career.

5. Everybody can be benefited from coaching. No everyone needs therapy, counseling or advices. But everyone can gain insights from being coached. You need a lot of education and experience to become a therapist, counselor or consultant. But it does not requires too much training to be a good coach because coaching is absolutely helping others just by making them helping themselves.

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Article Written on Aug 2007

My Point of View: 我的思維理論




1. 認知:認出知道人、事、物,即『這是什麼

2. 學習:認出知道後,了解其應用,即『那又如何

3. 聯繫:把人、事、物,『這是什麼』及『那又如何』聯繫一起,以後每次看到/想到那人、事、物,隨即自動想起並使用這組聯繫

4. 重複使用:未來不斷使用這組聯繫,每用一次,這組聯繫便越強,越易引發,而且引發速度越快!




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Customer Service: Gap 6 & 7 in Servqual Model


One of our ISQMP (Qualicert Internal Auditor Program) graduates asked me about the Gap 6 & 7 in the Servqual Model of Service Quality.

Servqual Model is originated by Parasuraman in 1985. He only proposed 5 Gaps in his model. In all his revised versions of his model in 1988, 1991 and finally in 1994, these 5 Gaps remain unchanged. Only in 1988, he added the 5 Dimensions of Service Quality, i.e. the RATER - Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy & Responsiveness.

Gap 6 & 7 were added by another scholars, Luk & Layton in 2002. Gap 6 is the discrepancy between customer's expectations and employees' perceptions, while Gap 7 is the discrepancy between employees' perceptions and management's perceptions.

These 2 gaps can be useful, but they are not part of the Servqual Model. If someone tells you that there are 7 gaps in the Servqual Model, s/he is confused.

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